Carbon Steel Piping: This piping is an alloy of iron and carbon. Carbon steel exhibits high yield stress, high tensile strength, elasticity, ductility, and lack of brittleness which enable it to operate at high pressures. Carbon steel pipes have greater carrying capacity for a given pressure over pipes made with other materials with the same outer diameter. Carbon steel pipes are supplied in longer lengths than pipes made with other materials, requiring fewer assembly joints. Corrosion is a major disadvantage in carbon steel pipes.
Things to Consider: Diameter Nominal, Schedule, Outside diameter,Wall thickness, Inside diameter, Inside area, Pipe weight (kg/m), Water weight (kg/m), ASME/ANSI B36.10/19.
Copper Piping. This piping is recognized as superior for conveying water. It is light, strong, and corrosion resistant. It does not react with water, has high yield stress, and is germicidal. It is readily available in a multitude of sizes with a broad assortment of fittings. Joints are easily and economically made.
Things to Consider: Application, Temper, Length, Color Code; Specifications as applicable for use include: Federal-WW-T-799, ASTM-B.88, UL approved 1/4″ thru 2″, fire service systems 1/2″ thru 8″, ASTM B-306, Navy-44P2, Federal-WW-P-377, ASTM-B-42, ASTM-B-302, Federal-WW-T-775, ASTM B-280, ASTM B-68, ASTM B-75.
Fiberglass Piping: Fiberglass pipe is often the material of choice for corrosive process systems. It can withstand higher temperatures and pressures than ordinary thermoplastic materials. Its corrosion and chemical resistance, makes it well-suited for general chemical processing applications. Fiberglass pipe can be used in a wide variety of corrosion resistant conditions. It is 20% lighter than steel, stronger than steel on an equal weight basis, has a coefficient of friction 25% better than steel, has low thermal conductivity, and low long-term maintenance costs.
Things to Consider: Standard specification ASTM D2996, Schedule 30, FDA requirements, Guarantee against UV degradation, Recommended operating pressure, Recommended span dimension, Materials of construction (ASTM D2310), Fittings and connections, Cement joints, Pressure and vacuum service limitations, Installation requirements.
Gas Poly Piping. This polyethylene pipe is commonly called gas poly piping because of its nearly exclusive use by the natural gas industry for its distribution lines. This is due to several of its characteristics. It has excellent diffusion resistance. It can be installed with bends over uneven terrain in continuous lengths without additional welds or fittings. It is extremely resistant to scale build up and is impervious to most aggressive chemicals and corrosive elements. Its exceptionally smooth inner surface offers minimal resistance to flow over the life of the pipe. This pipe can be joined by a several methods, but heat fusion is preferred. Polyethylene pipe can also be joined with mechanical and flanged connections.
Things to Consider: Materials of construction (typically MDPE or HDPE), Environmental stress crack resistance, Chemical resistance, Impact resistance, Heat fusible capability, ASTM D2513, DOT CFR Title 49 Part 192, Abrasion resistance, Temperature range (thermal expansion/contraction), Bending radius, Internal pressure, Direct burial, Point loading, Squeeze-off, Diameter, Choice of coiled or straight, Length, Design pressure rating, Dimension ratio, Outside diameter, Minimum wall thickness, Design factor, Service factor, Coefficient of expansion, Outdoor storage time limitations, Joining methods, DOT CFR Title 49 Part 192 192.283, LPG in vapor state application.
General Piping: A system of pipes used to convey fluids or gases from one location to another. Pipe and fittings can be manufactured from wood, glass, steel, aluminum, plastic, or concrete. In-line components; fittings, valves, meters, and other devices, are used to sense and control the pressure, flow rate, and temperature of the transmitted liquid or gas.
Things to Consider: Fluid or gas type, Interior or exterior location, Materials of construction, Inside/outside diameter, Wall thickness, Maximum pressure, Temperature range, Corrosion resistance, Support or mounting styles, Agency approvals, Joining methods.
Glass Piping. This piping, usually manufactured from borosilicate glass, has many desirable characteristics for laboratory applications. It provides long service life, product purity, smooth interior surface, and transparency. It is impervious to almost every corrosive and reagent known, is virtually unaffected by heat and thermal expansion, and does not burn or emit toxic fumes.
Things to Consider: ASTM Specification C 1053-90, ASTM C 1053-00, Federal specification DD-G-541B, Military specification MIL-P 22561 B (YD), Installation requirements, Buried line requirements, System connections glass to glass and with adapters to other materials, Pipe sleeves for use with wall and floor penetrations.
Glass Lined Piping: Glass lining is a form of porcelain enamel, much like the material applied to tubs and sinks for many years. It is applied in a process that forms a permanent chemical and physical bond with the metal surface. The finished surface is extremely smooth and very hard, making glass-lined pipe ideal for transfer of solids or chemicals that tend to adhere to the inside of bare pipe. Using glass-lined pipe significantly reduces maintenance, wasted energy, and repair costs associated with solids build up in piping systems. It is non-permeable; resistant to corrosion, abrasion, high temperatures, and thermal shock; and has a wide pH range.
Things to Consider: Standard of quality CBGL911, ASTM D-792 test for density, Immersion testing using ASTM C-283-97 (2002), No corrosion evident after 10 minute exposure to separate 125F (52C) solutions of HCl (pH 3) and NaOH (pH 10), Thermal shock capability of instantaneous 350F (176C) without cracking/crazing/blistering/spalling, Minimum hardness of 6 on Mohs scale, Number of acceptable pinholes, AWWA and ANSI standards, Field cuts and further fabrication may affect pipe specifications, Field repair methods.
Modular Pneumatic Tubing. Modular tubing offers quick mechanical assembly of tubing systems using a complete assortment of tubing segments, fittings, valves, gauges, and ports that are designed to assemble quickly and easily with simple hand tools. Each modular component has a flanged end and includes necessary gasketing and associated clamps to ensure an accurate seal. Most modular systems, available in various materials, provide adapters enabling you to join modular systems to existing system for repairs or quick additions.
Things to Consider: Diameter Nominal, Pressure rating, Outside diameter, Wall thickness, Inside diameter, Inside area, Pressure drop, Materials of construction, Steel gauge, Weight, Angle for bends or laterals or segments, Radius for bends or segments, Valve flanges ANSI or DIN as required, Valves symmetric or asymmetric, Throttle valves hand operated or actuated.
Plastic Piping: Plastic pipes are lighter than pipes made from other materials. Their smooth inner walls promote high flow rates and resistance to the formation of deposits, preventing clogging. Though they do not have the strength of metal pipes, their flexibility provides them with enough tensile and burst strength to withstand operating pressures encountered in most service conditions. They can withstand external shocks that could cause failure in more brittle materials. They are resistant to water, nearly all acids, alkalis, salt solutions, and other corrosive liquids and gases.
Things to Consider: Plastic type, Gasketed joints, Life expectancy, Effect of UV exposure, Standard dimension ratio, Average outside diameter, Minimum wall thickness, Burial of pipe, Flexible conduit deflection, Maximum allowable depth of burial, Recommended Manning’s n value, Recommendation for bell-direction during installation.
Sanitary Piping: This piping must be non-corrosive and non-reactive with the liquid or materials being transported. Although material selection is important to the design of sanitary piping (glass and stainless steel are commonly used), manufacturing quality is critical. Sanitary piping requires smooth inside surfaces and joint junctions to minimize collection of material on inside surfaces.
Things to Consider: Pipe flow, Flow velocity range, Inside diameter, Slope, Approved materials of construction, Roughness coefficient, Connections, Alignments.
Stainless Steel Piping: Stainless pipe is a frequent choice for corrosive process systems. Its corrosion and chemical resistance make it well-suited for general chemical processing applications. Its external appearance is suited for installations requiring a clean look. Stainless pipes can be manufactured with highly polished internal surfaces for sanitary applications.
Things to Consider: Pipe versus tube as defined by ANSI specifications, Pipe dimensions determined by ASME B36.19, Outside diameter, Schedule wall thickness, Choice of seamless or welded pipe, ASTM standards, Temperature range, Corrosive service, Welding method, Welding to ASTM A312 or ASTM A358 (various classes), Stresses, Radiograph requirement for welds, Double welding requirements, Filler metal allowances, Stainless steel grade, Markings on pipe, Nominal bore, Heat number.