Air Separators: Air separators are used to remove air contained in the liquid piping systems. The air discharge capacity of these devices is high. They are capable of removing automatically all the air present in a system, some down to micro-bubble level. The circulation of de-aerated water enables equipment to operate free from any noise, corrosion, localized overheating or mechanical damage.
Things to Consider: Separation rate range (lbs per hour), Number of separation chambers, Motor power, Number of motors, Electrical requirements, Progammable key pads, Materials of construction, Feeder stand, Feeder, Dimensions, Weight, Agency approvals, Warranty.
Pipe Expansion Joints: These flexible joints, which are designed to withstand the internal pressure of the connected piping system, compensate for axial, lateral, and angular deflections in piping systems. Pipe expansion joints are commonly used in piping systems handling high temperature steam or compressed air. They are designed to operate under various environmental and pressure conditions, and are of several common types: flexible expansion loops, and bellows made from metal, rubber, or plastic.
Things to Consider: Maximum working pressure (Bellows rating and flange rating), Working temperature, Test pressure, End fittings (flanges ANSI B16.5 and weld ends), Size (effective area), Compression, Bellows material, Bellows size, Bellows effective area, Bellows spring constant.
Explosion Suppression and Flame Arrestors. Explosion and flame are related hazards with different protection methods. A flame arrester is a device installed in a process to stop the propagation of a flame traveling along a pipeline by extinguishing it. They are used on storage tank vents and gas pipelines. Flame arresters force a flame front through channels too narrow to permit the continuance of a flame. An explosion suppression system consists of an explosion detector, control system, and suppressor unit. The suppressor unit stores the suppressant under pressure for release at high speed. A good suppressant should have the following properties: quenching ability – rapid heat absorption from the combustion zone by energy transfer; dilution – suppressant concentration should dilute the inburned mixture a point where it is non-flammable; wetting – unburnt dust particles are rendered non-flammable by absorption of liquid suppressant; chemical action – chemical composition of the suppressant directly interferes with combustion.
Things to Consider: Gas/vapor composition, Flash point, Maximum flow rate, Maximum static pressure, Maximum temperature, Minimum temperature, Allowable pressure drop, Molecular weight/density, Is endurance burning on the arrester element possible? (Yes/No), Distance from ignition source to flame arrester (in line flame arresters only), Installation (Inline/Vent), Weather cowl required? (Yes/No), Orientation (Horizontal/Vertical), Connection type (Flanged/Screwed), Size (nominal bore), Pressure rating, Housing material (Stainless/Carbon steel), Element material (Stainless/Hastelloy), Painting required (Yes/No), Delta P gauge sensor connection required? (Yes/No), Temperature sensor connection required? (Yes/No), Connection sizes for gauges/sensors.
Flow Panels. Custom designed flow transfer panels can be integrated to allow separation of clean in place and process flows in the food, dairy, pharmaceutical, or biotech industries. The flow transfer panel is utilized to provide a physical break between clean in place and process as required by processing regulations, good manufacturing practices. These panels are provided with or without U-bend position feedback. The communication protocol between the plate mounted proximity switches can be 115 VAC, 24 VDC discrete, DeviceNet or Profibus communication wiring. They can be provided with drain pans to collect any fluids while making swings between the ports on the flow transfer panel. They could also include piping on the rear ports, legs, manual or automatic valves, instrumentation and integrated control panels.
Things to Consider: Quantity of panels, Jumpers per panel, Port size (tube OD), Connections on front, Connections on back, Port layout, Panel size (Standard dimensions are usually available from manufacturer), Jumper centerline dimension, Proximity switches (None/Inductive/Magnetic), Proximity switch holes (Quantity/Size), Jumper stem size (None/Half-inch round bar/three-quarter inch round bar), Mounting legs (None/Standard/Other/Include 6″ x 6″ base plates with four anchor holes), Wall sleeve/frame, Drip pan, Nomenclature labels, Material of construction (Wetted surfaces/Non-wetted surfaces), Material finish (Ra or grit value), Weld finish (ID/OD).
Gas Manifold: A chamber having several outlets through which gas is distributed or gathered. They range from simple supply chambers with several outlets to multi chambered flow control units including integral valves and interfaces to electronic networks.
Things to Consider: Application, Number of supply ports, Number of outlet ports, Port type, Manifold circuit style, Integral manifold valves, Networkable manifold, Body material, Maximum pressure, Maximum flow, Temperature range, Integral valve type and solenoid valve input if applicable, Adjustable chamber isolation feature, Visual indicator feature, Feedback signal feature.
Piping Gaskets: Mechanical seals that fill the space between two pipes or fittings, and prevent leakage between them while under compression. Gaskets fill the irregularities between mating surfaces. Pipe gaskets are commonly manufactured from sheet materials, such as gasket paper, rubber, silicone, metal, cork, felt, neoprene, fiberglass, or plastic.
Things to Consider: Outside diameter of flange, Inside diameter of the flange or nominal bore of the pipe, Number of bolt holes required, Diameter of bolt holes, Pitch circle diameter of bolt holes, Materials of construction, Gasket thickness.
Pipe Hangers: Pipe hangers are hardware products that mount and support piping to machines and facilities. There are myriad designs for every conceivable piping application, including beam clamps, pipe hangers, pipe clamps, pipe rollers, pipe supports, concrete inserts, and brackets.
Things to Consider: Compliance with MSS-SP-58 for manufacturing, Conform to ANSI/ASME Code for Pressure Piping B31.1, UL203 Standard for pipe hanger equipment and fire protection service, Factory Mutual FM1551 approval standard for pipe hanger components for automatic sprinkler systems, Metal Framing Manufacturers Association MFMA-2, Local building systems, Conform to MSS-SP-69 for installation, Load calculations (static/dynamic), Total system has to be considered for load calculations, Total load of system, Thermal expansion/contraction, Stress from cycling of equipment or process, Vibration transmitted to or from equipment or terminal connection, Wind/snow/ice loading on outdoor piping, Loading due to seismic forces, Insure structural integrity of building or equipment at points of hanger attachment, Materials and protective coatings, Material that comes in contact with pipe must be compatible with piping material to avoid corrosion, Hanger spacing variations to accomodate building structural loading limitations.
Hose Couplings. Male and female metal fittings, usually made of brass or plastic, that are attached to the ends of a hose or tubing to enable connection to a spigot, to another hose, or to a nozzle.
Things to Consider: Application (usage media), Hose ID, NPT size, Maximum pressure and temperature, Materials of construction, Chemical compatibility, UV resistance, Suitability for potable liquids (NSF or FDA approvals).
Hose. A flexible tube designed to transport fluids or gases. The term Hose is traditionally used to refer to reinforced rubber or plastic hose used to deliver water and other liquids under pressure for commercial or household applications. When made of lighter plastics, and used in laboratory applications at lower pressures, hoses are usually referred to as tubing. Hose or tubing is rated for size, pressure, weight, and chemical compatibility.
Things to Consider: Application (usage media), Hose or complete hose assembly, Accessories and fittings, Inside diameter, Outside diameter, Working pressure, Maximum vacuum, Temperature range, Materials of construction, Chemical compatibility, Options such as coiled or corrugated or articulated or crush proof or lay flat or reinforced, Features such as anti-static or flame resistant or explosion proof, Weight, UV resistance, Suitability for potable liquids (NSF or FDA approvals).
In-Line Sight Glass. A transparent tube or a fitting with a window that is placed into the line through which the process media is transported, allowing the operator to observe the height or the flow of the process liquid.
Things to Consider: Flow indication method, Materials (body/glass/seals), Maximum temperature, Pressure ratings, Connections (Threaded/Flanged), Dimensions, Wiper option for use in large diameter pipes.
Piping Insulation: Thermal insulation used to prevent heat loss or gain from pipes to save energy, improve the effectiveness of thermal systems, and reduce costs.
Things to Consider: Type of piping system and temperature range, ASTM C 547, ASTM C 585, ASTM C 1136, Materials of construction, Minimum thickness requirements of ASHRAE National Voluntary Consensus Standard 90.1 (1999), Fire hazard requirments of applicable building codes: ASTM E 84, UL 723, CAN/ULC-S 102-M88, NFPA 255, Molded pipe insulation to meet ASTM C 585, Molded fibrous glass pipe insulation to comply with ASTM C547, Adhesive closure system if applicable, Sealing system, Multiple layer requirements, Vapor retarding outer jacket requirement, Vapor seals at butt joints requirement, Manufacturer’s installation guidelines.
Piping Labels. Paper or plastic self-stick labels marked with information to indicate what a pipe is transporting, in which direction, and safety advisories. Many labels, for common conditions, are available pre-printed. For special applications, label printing machines may be used. Labeling could also include metal valve identifiers that are attached using wire twists, and lock-out/tag-out tags.
Things to Consider: ANSI / ASME A13.1 Labeling Guide (General Pipe Marking Standards, IIAR Ammonia Refrigeration Pipe Labeling Guide, Outside diameter of pipe or pipe covering to be labeled, Length of color field, Size of letters, Directional arrows, Number of locations pipe needs to be marked: Adjacent to all changes in direction, Adjacent to all valves and flanges, At both sides of floor and wall penetrations, At any point of entry into the line, At 50 foot intervals on straight runs, Availability of label printers for in-house printing, Bar-coding requirement, Chemically resistant ink, Clear plastic sleeves for placement of labels on dirty or oily or greasy pipes, Devise a standard system of pipemarking for your application.
Pulsation Dampeners: These dampeners are also called hydropneumatic accumulators. These devices prevent shock and water hammers, not by suppressing them, but by alleviating the conditions that cause them. They provide a chamber of sufficient volume to allow an extension of time in which a given flow may be accelerated or decelerated without a sudden large change in pressure. This chamber generally contains a separator member which prevents the escape a pre-filled compressed inert gas.
Things to Consider: Materials of construction of each part, Dimensions, Air capacity, Maximum pressure, Weight.
Rupture Disc: A pressure relief device that protects a vessel or system from over pressurization. They have a membrane, usually metal foil, which fails at a fixed pressure or vacuum. Rupture discs respond quickly to an increase in system pressure, but once the membrane has failed it will not reseal. Rupture discs are often used as a backup device for a conventional safety valve. If the safety valves fails to operate (or can’t relieve pressure quickly enough), the disc ruptures.
Things to Consider: Pressure min/max, Nominal burst pressure, Manufacturing range, Burst tolerance, ASME certification, Accordance with ISO6718, Cyclic/Pulsating duties.
Sampling Systems: These systems and devices enable non-contact, closed-loop sampling of liquids, gases, and liquefied gases by installing a sampling device directly into the pipeline. This eliminates the problems encountered when sampling directly from the process: risk of exposure to the operator, contamination of the environment. The sampling system removes a sample from the line, places it in a vial or container, and evaluates it. Once the sampling is complete, the vial or container is purged of the sample, usually with a carrier gas. Sampling systems are designed to operate in both batch and continuous modes.
Things to Consider: Maximum sampling pressure at a specified temperature, Sampling unit volume, Temperature range, Materials of construction, Wetted materials, Fittings, Autoclaving compatibility, USP Class VI conformance, Integrity testing during manufacturing, Assembly under certified clean room conditions, Sterilization method, Bacterial endotoxin content value, Tube standards (ASTM A270/DIN 11850/Reihe 2), Connection type.
Piping Specialties. A category that includes all components, other than in-flow devices and fittings, that support, organize, identify, mount, protect, and benefit the life and utility of the piping system. This includes such items as pipe hangers, pipe racks, labels, lock-out tag-out tags, shock absorbers, insulation, etc.
Things to Consider: Maximum temperatures and pressures in system, ANSI B31 compliance.
Stainless Steel Hose Reel. A device, fabricated from stainless steel, used to feed out, retract, and store a hose. Hose reels are manufactured in manual, spring driven, and motorized configurations, in both portable and wall-mounted types. When using wall-mounted types, the hose is usually permanently connected to the water outlet.
Things to Consider: Hose capacity of reel, Weight, Roller assembly, Reel dimensions, Finish.
Steam Trap. A device used to discharge condensate and non-condensible gases while preventing the escape of live steam. They are, essentially, valves that open, close or modulate automatically. There are three major types: mechanical, temperature, and thermodynamic. Mechanical traps have a float that rises and falls in relation to condensate level. Mechanical linkage operates the valve. Temperature traps have a valve that is operated by the expansion and contraction caused by temperature changes. Thermodynamic traps work on the difference in dynamic response to velocity change in flow of compressible and incompressible fluids.
Things to Consider: Maximum operating pressure, Maximum capacity (lbs/hr maximum amount of liquid the trap can pass), Operating temperature, Steam trap type, Connection style and size, Body material, ANSI compliance.
Piping Strainer. A fitting, placed into the pipeline, which contains a screen that allows water to pass, but not larger items, which fall into a reservoir for later removal.
Things to Consider: Materials of construction, Corrosion liner on interior surfaces and flange faces, Visual inspection capability, Outlet area compared to area of inlet pipe, Spare basket for change-out, Pressure drop versus flow rate curve, Dimensions, Weight.
Tubing. A hollow cylinder for the conveyance of liquids or gases. Tubing appears similar to pipe, but tubing implies tighter engineering requirements than pipe. Pipe implies a level of rigidity and permanence. Tubing, however, can be rigid, semi-rigid, or flexible. Unlike pipe, which is specified by nominal sizes that are usually not dimensionally correct, tubing is specified by its actual ID or OD and wall thickness. Tubing is extruded from many metals and plastics.
Things to Consider: Application, Tube type, Material, Outside diameter, Maximum inside diameter, Wall thickness, Shape, Pressure rating, Maximum vacuum, Minimum bend radius, Temperature range, Finish, Temper, Features.