Boiler: A pressurized system in which water is vaporized to steam by heat transferred from a source of higher temperature. It consists of two principal parts: the furnace, which provides heat, usually by burning a fuel, and the boiler proper, a device in which the heat changes water into steam.
Things to Consider: Fuel type (gas or oil); Rated tested and built per AMBA, UL, and ASME; Number of passes; Tube orientation; Area of heating surface; Rated BHP; Base material; Boiler trim — water column, feedwater pump control, low-water cutoff, aux. steam pressure gauges, relief valves, controls near water column; Front and rear doors hinges, seals and fastening method; Doors for cleaning; Observation port; Manhole for boilers > 48″; Refractory and insulation; Exhaust vent and thermometer; Insulation jacket on boiler shell (typically fiberglass); Finish (typically hard enamel); Burner type; Gas pilot type; Oil pump capacity; Fuel oil piping should include regulators, metering controls, solenoid shutoff valves, pressure gauges, and low oil-pressure switch; Gas burner piping should include motor-operated primary gas shut-off valve with proof-of-closure switch and plugged leakage-test connection, and lubricated butterfly valve at front of gas train for testing, high and low gas-pressure switches; Control system, Sensors; Flame supervision and status indicators; Low-fire cutoff; High/low limits programmable from keyboard; Modem for remote monitoring; Optional lead/lag and oxygen trim adjustments; Warranty.
Utilities, Clean Steam: An in-house generation/storage and distribution system found in laboratories and industrial facilities, ensuring the availability and delivery of compressed air upon demand, to specified locations and activities.
Things to Consider: Compliance with rules of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), Code of Federal Regulations (CFR Title 21 Part 211), Purity specification specific to system manufacturer, Common specification: condensate meets WFI requirements for conductivity < 2.1 microS at 25C and TOC < 500ppm and endotoxin < 0.25 EU/mL, Specs for clean steam may also be based on USP 24 Purified Water Specification: Conductivity < 2.1 microS at 25C, TOC < 500 ppm, Endotoxin no requirement; Avoidance of corrosion, Prevention of entry of contaminants into system, Prevention of microbial growth in system, Evaporation of good quality feedwater, Heating by utility steam or electric heating, Generation pressure 40psig, Droplet removal, Materials of construction stainless steel or titanium, Periodic blowdown, Distribution, Condensate removal, Air removal, Superheat prevention, Sanitary design using sanitary tubing (ASME BPE-2002), Instrumentation, Line sizing, Clean steam sampling, Condensate system, Impact of foreign regulations on processes used in pharmaceutical facility, Validation of system, Operation and maintenance guidelines.
Condensate Receiver: A holding vessel for steam that has condensed throughout the heat exchange process within a heating system. Receivers are part of a condensate pumping system and usually contain either a float switch or level control that starts a pump when the condensate level is high and stops it when low.
Things to Consider: Material (e.g. ASME Code carbon steel); Dimensions; Weight; Fill head typically 0″, 6″, or 12″; Type of level sensor; Capacity; Maximum pressure rating; Isolation valves; Check valves; Unions; Pump preferably requires no electricity for operation (steam driven); Water level gauge; Shut-off valves; Standard paint; Warranty.
Electric Heaters. Used to heat a variety of materials, industrial electric heaters come in many sizes and configurations for purposes of comfort heating to immersion heating. Industrial heaters have myriad applications, from heating tanks filled with liquids and gases to warming warehouses and exposed areas. Industrial heaters heat everything from air and gases to oils and water.
Things to Consider: Electrical requirements, Temperature setting control method, Temperature display type, Temperature range, Temperature control, Stability, Temperature sensor, High temperature cut-off, Low-level cutoff for liquid level, Wetted materials, Pressure pump rating, Suction pump rating, Heater wattage rating, Liquid capacity, Volume of space to be heated, Dimensions, Weight, Warranty.
Fired Heater: Also known as a furnace, fired heaters provide heat for a process, or serve as reactors for the provision of heat. Their designs vary as to function, heating duty, type of fuel and method of introducing combustion air.
Things to Consider: Fuel type (gas or oil), GAS-FIRED: Water heater type choices of Automatic storage, Automatic instantaneous, Circulating tank (automatic or non-automatic), Direct-venting, Direct-firing OIL-FIRED: Usually storage tank type, Residential models have storage tank capacity < 200L with input rating of 30kW or less, Option for burning either gas or oil, Warranty.
Hot Water System: A system that uses a thermodynamic process that uses an energy source to heat water above its initial temperature. These systems are available in a number of sizes and powered from several fuel sources such as gas, solar or electricity.
Things to Consider: SYSTEM ELEMENTS: — Heat Energy Source such as fuel combustion, electrical conversion, solar energy, geothermal, recovered waste heat — Heat Transfer Equipment choice of direct, indirect, or combination — Distribution system (circulating or non-circulating) — Terminal hot-water usage devices usage pattern – irregular flow, constant flow, no flow, SYSTEM VARIABLES: Recovery efficiency, Recovery rate, Fixture unit (number on arbitrary scale related to load-producing effects of fixtures and equipment), Thermal efficiency, Input efficiency, Energy factor according to DOE 10CFR430 and ASHRAE Standard 118.2, First-hour rating (max amount of hot-water supplied in 1 h), Standby loss of tank water heater, Standby loss coefficient of storage water heater, Hot-water distribution efficiency, Heater/system efficiency, System standby loss, DESIGN: Water heater standby losses, recovery efficiency, thermal efficiency, or energy factors; Distribution system layout, sizing, insulation, fixture and equipment location, minimize piping lengths and diameters (reduce water and energy waste), Heat trap locations, Scheduled operation of circulating pumps, Building vacancy shutdown option to reduce standby losses, DISTRIBUTION: Piping material and insulation, Water treatment requirements, Local code requirements, Pressure differential for blended hot and cold water (minimize), Piping heat loss, Hot-water delivery delays, Recirculation loops, Return piping, Heat trace (electric resistance heating cable) requirements, Multiple water heaters, Special piping for commercial dishwashers (NSF Standards, water pressure for commercial kitchens (NSF standards), Two-temperature service, Manifolding; Water quality, scale, and corrosion, SPECIAL CONCERNS: Legionnaire’s Disease, Scalding, Temperature requirement, Warranty.
Process Ovens. A type of furnace used for thermal processing. They are used in manufacturing plants and laboratories for curing, drying, sterilizing, aging, and other critical processing applications. Sizes vary depending on the type of thermal processing needed. These ovens can be small enough to mount on a bench or large enough to drive a truck into.
Things to Consider: Pressure range, Temperature range, Capacity, Configuration (Bench/Cabinet/Walk-in/Truck-in/Continuous/Conveying/Vertical), Heat source, Heat transfer method, Controller type (Single set point/Programmable), Atmosphere (Air/Oxidizing/Inert/Vacuum), Application criteria (Aging/Annealing/Baking/Brazing/Soldering/Burn-off/Curing/Drying/Firing/Sintering/Foundry/Melting/Heat treating/Laboratory/Preheating/Quenching/Sterilizing), Features criteria (Cooling system/Shelving/Racks/Carts/Air Filtration/Timers/Alarms/Logging/Recorder options/Explosion proof).